KPV+PEA 500 References

KPV  (Lysine-Proline-Valine):

  1. Dalmasso G, Charrier-Hisamuddin L, Nguyen HT, Yan Y, Sitaraman S, Merlin D. PepT1-mediated tripeptide KPV uptake reduces intestinal inflammation. Gastroenterology. 2008;134(1):166–178. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2007.10.026.
  2. Xiao B, Xu Z, Viennois E, et al. Orally Targeted Delivery of Tripeptide KPV via Hyaluronic Acid-Functionalized Nanoparticles Efficiently Alleviates Ulcerative Colitis.Mol Ther. 2017;25(7):1628-1640. doi:10.1016/j.ymthe.2016.11.020
  3. Kannengiesser K, Maaser C, Heidemann J, et al. Melanocortin-derived tripeptide KPV has anti-inflammatory potential in murine models of inflammatory bowel disease.Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008;14(3):324-331. doi:10.1002/ibd.20334
  4. Viennois E, Ingersoll SA, Ayyadurai S, et al. Critical role of PepT1 in promoting colitis-associated cancer and therapeutic benefits of the anti-inflammatory PepT1-mediated tripeptide KPV in a murine model.Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2(3):340-357. doi:10.1016/j.jcmgh.2016.01.006
  5. Getting SJ, Schiöth HB, Perretti M. Dissection of the anti-inflammatory effect of the core and C-terminal (KPV) alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptides.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;306(2):631-637. doi:10.1124/jpet.103.051623

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA):

  1. Clayton, Paul et al. “Palmitoylethanolamide: A Natural Compound for Health Management.” International journal of molecular sciences 22,10 5305. 18 May. 2021, doi:10.3390/ijms22105305
  2. Gabrielsson L, Mattsson S, Fowler CJ. Palmitoylethanolamide for the treatment of pain: pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Oct;82(4):932-42. doi: 10.1111/bcp.13020. Epub 2016 Jun 29. PMID: 27220803; PMCID: PMC5094513.
  3. Paladini, Antonella et al. “Palmitoylethanolamide, a Special Food for Medical Purposes, in the Treatment of Chronic Pain: A Pooled Data Meta-analysis.” Pain physician 19,2 (2016): 11-24.
  4. Brugnatelli V, Turco F, Freo U, Zanette G. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Manipulating the Endocannabinoid System as First-Line Treatment. Front Neurosci. 2020 Apr 21;14:371. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2020.00371. PMID: 32372912; PMCID: PMC7186328.

Salcaprozate sodium (SNAC):

  1. Twarog, Caroline et al. “Intestinal Permeation Enhancers for Oral Delivery of Macromolecules: A Comparison between Salcaprozate Sodium (SNAC) and Sodium Caprate (C10).” Pharmaceutics 11,2 78. 13 Feb. 2019, doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics11020078
  2. Zhu Q, Chen Z, Paul PK, Lu Y, Wu W, Qi J. Oral delivery of proteins and peptides: Challenges, status quo and future perspectives. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2021 Aug;11(8):2416-2448. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2021.04.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29. PMID: 34522593; PMCID: PMC8424290.
  3. Aroda, V.R., Blonde, L. & Pratley, R.E. A new era for oral peptides: SNAC and the development of oral semaglutide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Rev Endocr Metab Disord23, 979–994 (2022).