• Yang C, Jiao Y, Wei B, Yang Z, Wu JF, Jensen J, Jean WH, Huang CY, Kuo CH. Aged cells in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise. Aging (Albany NY). 2018 Jun 27;10(6):1356-1365. doi: 10.18632/aging.101472. Erratum in: Aging (Albany NY). 2019 Sep 24;11(18):8035. PMID: 29953414; PMCID: PMC6046228.
    • Kuo, Chia-Hua. (2019). Exercise Against Aging: Darwinian Natural Selection Among Fit and Unfit Cells Inside Human Body. Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise. 1. 1-5. 10.1007/s42978-019-0002-y.
    • Af Geijerstam A, Mehlig K, Börjesson M, Robertson J, Nyberg J, Adiels M, Rosengren A, Åberg M, Lissner L. Fitness, strength and severity of COVID-19: a prospective register study of 1 559 187 Swedish conscripts. BMJ Open. 2021 Jul 5;11(7):e051316. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-051316. PMID: 34226237; PMCID: PMC8260308.
    • Ruiz JR, Sui X, Lobelo F, Morrow JR Jr, Jackson AW, Sjöström M, Blair SN. Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2008 Jul 1;337(7661):a439. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a439. PMID: 18595904; PMCID: PMC2453303.
    • Volaklis KA, Halle M, Meisinger C. Muscular strength as a strong predictor of mortality: A narrative review. Eur J Intern Med. 2015 Jun;26(5):303-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2015.04.013. Epub 2015 Apr 25. PMID: 25921473.
    • Laurila, PP., Wohlwend, M., Imamura de Lima, T. et al. Sphingolipids accumulate in aged muscle, and their reduction counteracts sarcopenia. Nat Aging 2, 1159–1175 (2022).


  • The Journal of Nutrition 2023 153;6:1718-1729 Vicia faba Peptide Network Supplementation Does Not Differ From Milk Protein in Modulating Changes in Muscle Size During Short-Term Immobilization and Subsequent Remobilization, but increases Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates During Remobilization in Healthy Young Men
  • Kerr A, Hart L, Davis H, Wall A, Lacey S, Franklyn-Miller A, Khaldi N, Keogh B. Improved Strength Recovery and Reduced Fatigue with Suppressed Plasma Myostatin Following Supplementation of a Vicia fabaHydrolysate, in a Healthy Male Population. Nutrients. 2023; 15(4):986.
  • Cal R, Davis H, Kerr A, Wall A, Molloy B, Chauhan S, Trajkovic S, Holyer I, Adelfio A, Khaldi N. Preclinical Evaluation of a Food-Derived Functional Ingredient to Address Skeletal Muscle Atrophy. Nutrients. 2020 Jul 29;12(8):2274. doi: 10.3390/nu12082274. PMID: 32751276; PMCID: PMC7469066.
  • Corrochano AR, Cal R, Kennedy K, Wall A, Murphy N, Trajkovic S, O'Callaghan S, Adelfio A, Khaldi N. Characterising the efficacy and bioavailability of bioactive peptides identified for attenuating muscle atrophy within a Vicia faba-derived functional ingredient. Curr Res Food Sci. 2021 Apr 3;4:224-232. doi: 10.1016/j.crfs.2021.03.008. PMID: 33937870; PMCID: PMC8079236.

Senactiv® (Panax notoginseng (root) and Rosa roxburghii (fruit)) extracts containing ginsenoside Rg1:

  • Lee TXY, Wu J, Jean WH, Condello G, Alkhatib A, Hsieh CC, Hsieh YW, Huang CY, Kuo CH. Reduced stem cell aging in exercised human skeletal muscle is enhanced by ginsenoside Rg1. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Jun 28;13(12):16567-16576. doi: 10.18632/aging.203176. Epub 2021 Jun 28. PMID: 34181580; PMCID: PMC8266347.
  • Moiseeva, V., Cisneros, A., Sica, V. et al. Senescence atlas reveals an aged-like inflamed niche that blunts muscle regeneration. Nature (2022).
  • Gao Y, Li J, Wang J, Li X, Li J, Chu S, Li L, Chen N, Zhang L. Ginsenoside Rg1 prevent and treat inflammatory diseases: A review. Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 Oct;87:106805. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106805. Epub 2020 Jul 27. PMID: 32731179.
  • Yi YS. Roles of ginsenosides in inflammasome activation. J Ginseng Res. 2019 Apr;43(2):172-178. doi: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.11.005. Epub 2017 Dec 9. PMID: 30962733; PMCID: PMC6437422.
  • He F, Yu C, Liu T, Jia H. Ginsenoside Rg1 as an Effective Regulator of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Front Pharmacol. 2020 Jan 23;10:1565. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01565. PMID: 32038244; PMCID: PMC6989539.
  • Hou CW, Lee SD, Kao CL, Cheng IS, Lin YN, Chuang SJ, Chen CY, Ivy JL, Huang CY, Kuo CH. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1. PLoS One. 2015 Jan 24;10(1):e0116387. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116387. PMID: 25617625; PMCID: PMC4305310.
  • Wu J, Saovieng S, Cheng IS, Liu T, Hong S, Lin CY, Su IC, Huang CY, Kuo CH. Ginsenoside Rg1 supplementation clears senescence-associated β-galactosidase in exercising human skeletal muscle. J Ginseng Res. 2019 Oct;43(4):580-588. doi: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.06.002. Epub 2018 Jun 21. PMID: 31695564; PMCID: PMC6823780.
  • AstraGin® (Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng) root extracts containing astragaloside I, II, IV and ginsenoside Rb1:
    • Zhou P, Xie W, Sun Y, Dai Z, Li G, Sun G, Sun X. Ginsenoside Rb1 and mitochondria: A short review of the literature. Mol Cell Probes. 2019 Feb;43:1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.mcp.2018.12.001. Epub 2018 Dec 4. Erratum in: Mol Cell Probes. 2020 Dec;54:101626. PMID: 30529056.
    • Chang, Tsu-Chung et al. “Effect of ginsenosides on glucose uptake in human Caco-2 cells is mediated through altered Na+/glucose cotransporter 1 expression.” Journal of agricultural and food chemistry vol. 55,5 (2007): 1993-8. doi:10.1021/jf062714k
    • Wang, Chun-Wen et al. “A gut microbial metabolite of ginsenosides, compound K, induces intestinal glucose absorption and Na(+) /glucose cotransporter 1 gene expression through activation of cAMP response element binding protein.” Molecular nutrition & food research vol. 59,4 (2015): 670-84. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201400688